*Monadic NP*is different from

*Monadic coNP*.

So, what exactly is SO? MSO permits quantifications over sets (i.e. unary relations). SO is just a generalization of this idea: you are allowed to quantify over k-ary relations. So, formulas in SO will look like

ψ := Q

_{1}X

_{1}...Q

_{m}X

_{m}φ

where Q ∈ {∃,∀}, X

_{i}is a k

_{i}-ary "second-order variable" to be interpreted as a k

_{i}-ary relation, and φ is just a first-order (FO) formula that talks about these second-order variables as well as some relations in the given vocabulary. An example of a sentence in this logic has been given in here, in which case all second-order variables are unary. Another example that uses non-unary relations is hamiltonianicity:

∃ L ∃ S ( (L is a strict linear ordering over the vertices) and (S is L's successor relation) and ∀ x ∀ y( S(x,y) -> E(x,y) ) )

A graph is hamiltonian iff there exists a path that visits every vertex in the graph. You can think of L as the transitive closure of the path P that witnesses the hamiltonianicity of the graph, and of S as the path P. [Example: a strict linear ordering on {1,2,3} is the binary relation ≤ = {(1,2),(1,3),(2,3)}, while its successor relation is the binary relation {(1,2),(2,3)}. Perhaps, it is more descriptive to say "immediate successor" than just "successor".] Notice that in these two examples we only used ∃ quantifiers for the second-order variables. We use ESO (read: existential second-order logic) to denote all formulas in SO of this kind, i.e., where all the Q

_{i}is ∃. We use ASO (read: universal second-order logic) to denote formulas in SO where Q

_{i}equals ∀.

Theorem (Fagin 1974): ESO captures NP. ASO captures coNP.

The notion of "capture" here has been defined in a previous post. The examples above give two concrete NP properties (hamiltonianicity, and 3-colorability) that you can express in ESO. How do you express non-hamiltonianicity in ASO? It's simple: just negate the formula above and use the fact that "not ∃ X

_{i}ψ" is equivalent to "∃ X

_{i}not &psi". This can easily be generalized to other coNP properties. Let's summarize the results.

Theorem: NP = coNP iff ESO = ASO iff 3-colorability is expressible in ASO.

What complexity class does SO correspond to?

Theorem (Stockmeyer 1977) SO captures PH.

Actually, Stockmeyer proved a much stronger result relating the kth level in the hierarchy to an SO fragment that contains formulas with k second-order quantifier alternation.

Of course, we have not been successful in proving that ESO != ASO. However, a weaker version has been proven in the literature.

Theorem (Fagin 1975) Monadic NP is different from Monadic coNP.

By monadic NP, we mean ESO formulas all of whose second-order variables are unary. The same goes for monadic coNP. So, monadic NP is just existential monadic second-order logic (EMSO), while monadic coNP is universal MSO (AMSO). The separation query given in Fagin's proof was "graph connectivity"; it is expressible in AMSO, but not in EMSO. A simplified version of this proof has been given in a paper by Ajtai, Fagin, and Stockmeyer (AFS) in 1995. [Correction: the paper is by Fagin, Stockmeyer, and Vardi (FSV) instead. Thanks to Ron Fagin for pointing this out.] In my opinion, this is also the

*most*beatiful proof I have ever seen in finite model theory: simple, but extremely powerful. In a nutshell, this proof cleverly employs hanf-locality (which I have discussed here) which gives us a way of easily providing a winning strategy in "Ehrenfeucht-Fraisse games", which can be used to prove inexpressibility results. Is it possible to generalize the proof technique to ESO? Unfortunately no: Hanf-locality is not useful as soon as we permit binary second-order variables. On the other hand, we still have Ehrenfeucht-Fraisse games, which are in general hard to play. So, FSV proposed the following project: develop tools to easily establish a winning strategy in Ehrenfeucht-Fraisse games! Thus far, most tools of this kind uses some notions of locality, which is only useful for "sparse" structures. I hope that a more powerful tool can be discovered some time in the near future to prove a separation of ESO from ASO, although it seems that we are far from it.

The best way to learn AFS techniques for separating NP and coNP is to read Ron Fagin's

Easier ways to win logical games, DIMACS 1997

It is available from his website. A more complete reference is Leonid Libkin's excellent textbook titled Elements of Finite Model Theory (see chapter (3,4, and) 7).

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